L E N H A R D
Dr. Hermann Mueller, Heppenheim
Last update May 2nd, 2012
Translated in March/April 2003 with support of
Paolo Lenhard, Brazil and Jim Linhart, California
The first LENHARD ("Theodatus or Friederich Leonardt") came verifiable 1678 in the desert and uninhabited former village Harsberg on the "Sickinger Hoehe" near Landstuhl in Palatinate and founded a LENHARD clan (tribe). Members of this clan are living today not only in a lot of villages in Palatinate but in other German regions and in Northern America too.
From where did the first LENHARD come?
Where is the "home region" or "origin region" of our LENHARD clan?
Where lived the clan before the Thirty Years War (1618 - 1648)?
The question of the family background and ancestry of the LENHARD is like a very difficult criminal case with a lot of puzzles. Each step forward brings up new questions and the need to search again for new information and new answers:
1.) Does hints and proofs exist for the origin from Tyrol in Austria (with Tyrol in the borders of the 17th century)?
2.) Was the first LENHARD (Friederich Leonardt) a catholic from birth on or has he changed the religion, e. g. under strong pressure by the French during the period around 1680 of forcing the people to return to catholic faith?
3.) What does the mistiness in the Denombrement from 1681 mean?
"Theodatus or Friederich"?
4.) Does the very seldom name Theodatus give a hint on a special origin (region, religion)?
5.) Did the first LENHARD come together with Thomas REICHEL to Harsberg?
6.) Do the LENHARD have the same origin like the REICHEL, which shall be from "Waldtsee in Tirol"? Where is this "Waldtsee"?
Is it Bad Waldsee in Oberschwaben?
7.) Is there a connection to the LEONHARD families in Oberschwaben?
8.) How clearly can we link "Tanheim in Tyrol" to the village Tannheim in the Tannheimer Tal (Tannheimian valley)?
9.) Do we have about the year 1650 LEONHARD in Tannheim near to Memmingen?
10.) Do we have about the year 1650 LEONHARD in Thanheim near to Hechingen?
11.) Do kinsman like relations exit to other LENHARD clans in the neighborhood of Harsberg and do we have a common origin?
12.) Is there a connection from the LENHARD in Kollweiler to the Tannheimian valley?
13.) Can we exclude an origin from Switzerland or France?
Following paper tries to give answers to these questions and shows open points. It is the goal to get and give more information on the LENHARD clan from Harsberg and other LENHARD clans in the region of Westpfalz (Western Palatinate) and Saarpfalz (former Bavarian part of the Saarland).
It is very uncertain that it will be possible to identify the origin homeland of our LENHARD clan, where the ancestors lived before the Thirty Years war. We are far away from having checked all material in all relevant archives. But the chance to find exactly a document which is including information from where Friederich Leonardt came to Harsberg, is extremely small. Only a very extraordinaire stroke of luck could help, seldom like a big success in lottery.
Following paper includes knowingly different working theses. These theses base on more of 40 years of gathering data, doing analysis of these data and searching for examinations and assumptions. Unfortunately these working theses have the disadvantage that it was not possible to reach a final scientific proof for the theses. Therefore these theses must be seen in the context of this paper and the attempt to come closer to the solution. These working theses should be not handled as well proven research results. Nevertheless the working theses should show the state of research and encourage all of you to look for new data or new arguments. All this could help to come closer to the final solution.
2. The Surname LENHARD
3. LENHARD on the "Sickinger Hoehe" (Sickingian Mountains)
4. Where could Friedrich LENHARD have been from?
a) A Swiss Origin?
b) Consider an Austrian, Tyrol or Vorarlberg, origin?
c) Origin from the area "Krummes Elsass" and adjacent Lothringian areas?
d) Perhaps the Origin is somewhere else?
5. Characteristics of "our" LENHARD Clan
6. Prominent Members of the LENHARD kinship
7. Lineage of our LENHARD Clan
8. Coat of Arms from LENHARD/LEONHARD clans
9. Use of the Master Sequence
10. Information Exchange
Glossary of Terms for Genealogical Research in Germany
The study of the roots and origins of the LENHARD family line and the recording of LENHARD family members has been a 30-year long project for this author. The senior, documented (thus far known) patriarch of the LENHARD family (tribe) is Friedrich LENHARD (LEONARDT), who was first found to have been in Harsberg, Germany, in 1678. Specifically, he lived in the Sickingian mountain area (Sickinger Hoehe) in the south of Landstuhl, in the Pfalz (Palatinate). This area is today very close to the large US and NATO airbase, Ramstein. Landstuhl is known today from the TV news. There is the biggest US hospital in Europe.
Hopefully, it will be helpful to others to know the current status of the research, as it is ongoing. The author will now present background and overview to the LENHARD Family Tree. It is intended that this information will give the reader information about the relationships and connections of the LENHARDS. Also it is desirable to convey the assumptions the author has made. From this, the reader should gain some appreciation for the difficulties in tracing this heritage; but the object is to encourage, not discourage, him/her to look for and communicate new sources and supplementing documents to substantiate or refute these facts and assumptions.
Please note that continuous research and maintenance of the homepage is essential work. Therefore the priority is taken on the German version of this homepage. There you find the most actual state. Nevertheless I try to keep the English version close to the German version.
The basis for the first version of this work is the family album of Otto LENHARD from Schifferstadt. He has written the album in 1936. Supplemental material has been provided in the meantime from several sources. Particularly, information has come from Felix LENHARD, who lived in Pforzheim. Other information, resulting from research diligence, was gathered and added over time by the author. As implied, it is an ongoing process. There is the constant search for heretofore, unknown, relevant material. The process dictates valuation of any new material and constant revaluation of previous assumptions and information.
The direction the research has taken was driven by new found documents and information. Otto LENHARD, in 1936, had the earliest known records the church records of Kirchenarnbach, which date back to 1706. It wasnt until 1960, that the "Sickingische Amtsrelationsbuch" was published by Otto Lindemer. In it, the judicial and legal proceedings of the local government, along with a list of the inhabitants of Harsberg in 1700 were documented. In the 1980s, the author found in the Church records from the Catholic parish of Homburg, the mention of Friedrich LENHARD as a witness to a 1689 marriage in Homburg. And in March of 2001, the author received from Mr. Wendelin Petry, from Hermersberg, a copy of an Enumeration ("Denombrement", tax list, including a description of the local District) from 1681; it documented by name the earliest known LENHARD in our family tree.
So, driven by new genealogical material, past assumptions, working theses, and questions must be revisited, re-examined and re-evaluated again and again.
Top of the Denombrement from 1681
2. The Surname LENHARD
Today, the prevailing spelling of the family and clan name is LENHARD. However, there is another branch of the family who use LENHART. In earlier documents (mostly pre-dating 1800), the surname has been found with numerous spellings. The following variations on the spelling have been found:
LEONARDT (in the first
documentary denomination 1681), LEONHARD, LEONARD, LEONHARDT,
LEONHART, LIENHARD, LENHARD (most common writing today), LINHARD, LINHARDT, LENHART, LENHARDT, LIENNERT, LEINERT, LENERT, LÖNHARD, LÖHNHARD.
Please note that the "LENHARD" surname is found and used, not only among members of "our traceable family," but also in families from the Westpfalz and the adjacent Saarland regions of Germany. This spelling is found frequently among Swiss immigrants in Westrich, more frequently after the 30 Years War (1618-1648).
The surname LENHARD originated from the first name "Leonhard," which connotes "strong (or hard)" like a lion (not "heart of a lion," as assumed by some). In the "German Name Encyclopedia" by Hans Bahlow, Leonhard(t), is a mixture of the latin word "leo (lion)" and the Germanic "hard (boldly)." LIENHARD is the pre-Germanic (or Alemannische) spelling.
According to Bahlow, the "Holy Leonhard" is a patron to the farmers and the horses (see the "Leonhardi Umritt" in Bavaria).
According to Brockhaus, the "Holy Leonhard" was a hermit in the 6th century and lived near Limoges; he was particularly cited as a patron to cattle. In the 1904 "Golden Legend," (a Catholic book giving the history of various Holy men) further mention and information is included about the "Holy Leonhard" (the author has inserted some historical data references):
"Saint Leonhard was the son of a Frankish nobleman; his Godfather was king Chlodwig (he died 511). Leonhard was baptized, educated by the holy Remigius (bishop of Reims from 458 to 533) and ordained as priest. Leonhard lived as a hermit and later as abbot near Orleans. He died on November 6, 559. November 6th is also the day of Saint Leonhard on the Church calendar. Leonhard is the Patron Saint who protects against diseases of the domestic animals, particularly cattle and horses."
More information one can find under www.heiligenlexikon.de. There he is named "Leonhard from Noblat". Following picture has been taken from this source.
Window in the Leonhards church in Basel (Switzerland)
Not surprising, perhaps, is that the surname LENHARD / LEONHARD appears more often in geographical areas named for Saint Leonhard; e.g., in the Odenwald, near Falken-Gesaess, there is a place of pilgrimage named Saint Leonhard; and there is a Saint Leonhard in the Tannheimian Valley, in Tyrol in Austria.
It was in the time the recording of surnames became more commonplace, the 16th Century and earlier, that an "independent" pattern in the citing of the surname LENHARD emerged. It was then that various independent LENHARD families developed. Thus, it is difficult to link certain LENHARD clans to "our" lineage.
Following map from Germany shows the geografical distribution of the family names LENHARD and LENHART based on an investigation using the German phone book which is done by the special program Geogen (see link on my link page within my homepage). zOne can see that the names are relativ seldom (1621 phone entries in the year 2002) on one side but distributed in nearly all regions of Southern Germany on the other side. The distribution includes no hint concerning the origin homeland of the LENHARD.
German map with the distribution of the names LENHARD and LENHART in 2002
3. LENHARD on the "Sickinger Hoehe"
A key area where the patriarch, Friedrich LENHARD, lived and where till today an essential number of LENHARD families and LENHARD descendants are settled is the "Sickinger Hoehe." This mountain area is part of the "Westricher Hochflaeche (upper region of the Westrich)" in the West of Palatinate. Its borders are the lower, flat area to the North (there is Ramstein Air Base); the brook Schwarzbach to the South; the brook Moosalbe to the East; and, today's border of the federal region "Saarland" to the West. This area was (before 1789, the French Revolution, the following occupation of Palatinate, and the complete restructuring of the territories) under the ownership of some aristocratic families: Dukes of Zweibruecken, Barons of Sickingen, Counts of Leiningen, Counts of Hanau-Lichtenberg. The largest part was under the sovereignty of the Barons of Sickingen. Our Friedrich LENHARD lived in this Sickingian area.
The mountain area is mainly a plateau with an average height of about 400 m. Most of the villages are on this plateau, as is Harsberg. That is why we say in Palatinate that the people of these villages live on, and not in the "Sickinger Hoehe". The ground there is fertile. Therefore, there are a lot of farms there.
The history of this area following the end of The 30 Years War in 1648, is very important to the family research and understanding the life and fate of our ancestors. 50 more years without real peace but instead occupations, terror and war followed 1648. The years of plague and hunger had started in 1635. Most villages in the Westpfalz (Western part of Palatinate) were destroyed and/or evacuated. Duke Karl IV of Lorraine from 1646 till 1669, occupied the town and castle of Landstuhl and the surrounding Sickingian area. The barons of Sickingen have been vassals of the "Kurfuerst von der Pfalz" (Elector Palatinate) and regained the sovereignty in 1669. From 1673 to 1678 the area experienced the "Hollaendische Krieg" (Netherlanders War?) which entailed French occupation and French sovereignty. The Barons of Sickingen divided their region into two parts in 1680. One part, called the "Grosse Gericht" (Grossgericht, translated large court, but with the meaning of a court area or sovereignty area) went to the Barons of Sickingen-Hohenburg and the "Kleine Gericht" (Kleingericht, the second court area) went to the Barons of Sickingen-Sickingen. From 1688 to 1697 the area saw the "Pfaelzische Erbfolgekrieg" (Palatinate War with France) with French occupation and complete destruction and demolition of Palatinate (including Heidelberg and the area nearby).
All these wars, coupled with plague, changing military occupations, and sovereignty are the reason the area had a very unstable and small population as compared to the time leading up to the 30 Years War. Subsequently, resettlement was a very difficult process of about 50 years. As implied, many would-be new inhabitants to these villages didnt stay. In the midst of this era are found the first traces of Friedrich LENHARD. In 1678, Friedrich LENHARD first arrived in Harsberg. It seems that this settler came from somewhere outside of the region. As of today, the author does not have strong evidence that might offer proof there was a LENHARD family on the "Sickinger Hoehe" before the 30 Years War.
A good picture of the situation in the Landstuhl region, one that shows the resettlement process of families, is given in the Enumeration of 1681. It becomes clear that the Friedrich LENHARD family was already in Harsberg in 1678. This is directly from the Enumeration ("Denombrement") of 1681, and this mention is an extremely important in the LENHARD genealogy:
"the village Harsberg was desolate and laying deserted in the war,
3 years ago the following subjects moved in with safe years of freedom (free from taxes)
as Thomas Reichel, Theodatus or Friederich Leonardts."
For more on the resettlement of Harsberg, also see the special contribution "Resettlement of Harsberg after the `30 Years War, " from the feather/spring of the author and published on his web page. "Schauerberg", a village close to "Harsberg got very early (about 1700, no exact information is available) to a second center with members of the LENHARD clan.
In the period starting 1680, "Harsberg" belonged to the Large Court area (Grossgericht) of the Barons Von Sickingen, and "Schauerberg" to the Small Court area (Kleingericht) of the Sickingian Barons. In 1691, Harsberg and the other villages of the region have been assigned to the reestablished Parish of Horbach; however, the villages were also administered by Kirchenarnbach Parish.
Source documents for "Sickinger Hoehe" before 1700 are very rare. So, the search for LENHARD family members becomes even more difficult. The archives of the Baron "Von Sickingen-Sickingen," and those of the Baron "Von Sickingen-Hohenburg," formed from the division of the Landstuhl Region, have for the most part been lost or destroyed.
In a discovered "Sickingische Amtsrelationsbuch" (a book from the local Sickingian government with the records of juristic and legal activities) Friedrich LEONHARDT (LENHARD) is described, in 1700, as a "Lot farmer (meaning he would have come by his farm through a distribution by the government of ownerless ground)." At that time, a great deal of farm land was assigned, by the government, to farmers which had come to the villages in recent prior years.
It can be assumed the LENHARD family was a large one, because they were allotted two lots. This mention for the year 1700 is the third documented LENHARD mention in the "Grossgericht" area. The name Friedrich LEONARD from "Hasberg" had earlier been recorded on May 22, 1689, in Homburg, as a witness to a marriage (source: Catholic Church records of Homburg/Saar). The author is convinced that Harsberg and Hasberg are the same municipality. The second documented mention, in Homburg, begs the question, "Is Friedrich LEONARD related to the LENHARD in HOMBURG, and can it be proven he was originally from Tannheimian Valley in Tyrol?"
The political territories in the Westpfalz in the year 1789
The church records for the parishes surrounding Harsberg do not go back far enough to yield the first reliable information about the LENHARDs. The church records of Horbach go back to only 1710. The church records of Kirchenarnbach start in 1706, and in the first years they were poorly maintained, resulting in conflicting data. In Landstuhl, the surviving church records begin in 1696; in Massweiler, 1728; and in Nuenschweiler, 1753. So, the source documents, and hence the data, from around 1700 are poor. There remains hope for a "lucky find" which might clarify, doubt free, just who was the original location from where the LENHARD came to Harsberg.
4. Where could Friedrich LENHARD have been from?
Did Friedrich LENHARD come from Switzerland, from Tyrol, from Oberschwaben, from "Krummes Elsass", or somewhere else entirely? This is a question that has haunted the author from the beginning of his research.
Since there is not yet clear proof, favoring one place of origin over another, he undertakes to consider the various regional "conditions of the day." These are offered with the hopes that a lucky find might result, and thus help solve the mystery.
4.1 A Swiss Origin?
Family lore assumes that "LENHARD" is Swiss. Also, Pater Bernhard LENHART from Reifenberg thought it probable his ancestors were from Switzerland, and migrated to Germany sometime after the 30 Years War. His thinking, no doubt is based, in part, on the fact that Saint Leonhard was of Swiss nationality. However, this issue was deemed a weak argument by Otto LENHARD, primarily because the same arguement could be applied for Lorraine.
It is a fact, that from around 1650 a large number of LENHARD, LEONHARD, etc., families arrived in the Zweibruecken area. These families came from the Aargau in Switzerland and were all part of the Reformed movement.
Also, in the "Krummes Elsass," which seems to be a special locale for the LENHARD name, there are known to be several LENHARDs who immigrated from Switzerland: The name is found in Struth in 1694, and again in Mackweiler in 1714.
The religion of these Swiss immigrants argues against "our" LENHARDs having been among these Swiss. The author has not found one connection between "our" LENHARDs and the Reformed LENHARDs. Therefore, he concludes "our" LENHARD (Friedrich) is probably not from Switzerland.
Working thesis 1:
That Friedrich LENHARD had origins in Switzerland has a low probability.
4.2 Consider an Austrian,
Tyrol or Vorarlberg, origin?
There is a good possibility that the origin of "our" LENHARD is Tyrol or Vorarlberg. We have these references:
A) Between 1650 and 1700, a relatively large number of families moved from Tyrol into the abandoned Westpfalz, the Western part of Palatinate, particularly into the Catholic regions like the Landstuhl area. Migrating with the LENHARDs, would have been families with the names KESSLER and REICHEL. These names often are affiliated with the LENHARDs.
B) In 1678, two families arrived in Harsberg. There surnames were REICHEL and LENHARD. It is known the REICHEL family was from Tyrol. Specifically, they had lived in "Waldtsee," which, so far, has not been pinpointed on a map. Did these families know each other in Tyrol?
C) Some of the LENHARDs in Homburg, without a doubt, originated from the Tannheimian Valley of Tyrol (Austria). Whether there is a relationship between the Harsbergian and the Homburgian LENHARDs, as yet, is not proven; if so, it would argue the case that the Harsberg clan originated in Tyrol.
A clue that there is a kinship between the Harsbergian and Homburgian LENHARDs lies in the mentions of the name with that of SCHWAN, in independently recorded marriages:
- In Homburg, 1684, George LEONERT married Christine SCHUANERINE.
- Jacob SCHUANE, Deputy Mayor of Landstuhl, in 1689, and with Friedrich LEONARD, from Harsberg, witness a marriage in Homburg.
Jacob SCHWAN is listed as a resident in the Landstuhl Region in 1681 (from the "Denombrement of the dominion Landstuhl"). The SCHWAN, SCHUAN, name does not appear again in the church records of Homburg in this era. In the "Krummes Elsass," the name SCHWAN appears before 1700 only in Ingweiler, in 1636.
D) The Tyrolean immigrants were commonly carpenters or masons, and Roman Catholics. George was a frequently used, first name.
E) Duke Karl IV resided in Lorraine (requires further study) and ruled Lorraine and parts of Tyrol. In 1680 the named "Archduke Karl of Lorraine, Governor to the "oberoesterreichischen" (Upper-Austrian, or middle part of Austria) and the "vorderoesterreichischen" (Western part of Austria) Country, in Tannheim, Tyrol (source: the S. Hoelz, Municipal Archives from the District Reutte, Innsbruck, 1997). Until 1669, the Lotharingians occupied the Homburg and Landstuhl areas. Did the Archduke encourage his Tyrolean subjects to resettle in the Pfalz? More study is required.
Working thesis 2:
There is a connection between the Harsbergian and Homburgian LENHARDs.
Working thesis 3:
Some Homburgian LENHARDs originate from the Tannheim valley in Tyrol.
Working thesis 4:
The LENHARDs had close relations with Tyrolean immigrants.
4.3 Origin from the Area "Krummes Elsass" and adjacent Lothringian Areas?
The entry for the baptism of Johann Heinrich LEONARD, April 23, 1710, from the Kirchenarnbach church records, indicates his parents came from Finstingen (Vinstingen) in the Duchy Lorraine (today Fénétrange, about 40 km South of Saargemuend). The author has found no other evidence of this; attempts to make contacts in Fénétrange have proven unsuccessful.
"Krummes Elsass" (is not a historically defined region and the name is used today to describe a part of the Lotharingian area in the west of Northern Alsace and in the southern neighborhood of the German federal country Saarland. "Krummes Elsass (or hedge country)" includes the Nassau Saarwerden County, along with the former Luetzelstein County and other smaller regional entities. Bockenheim is today called Saarunion and/or Saare Union.
Dr. Hein, who has researched the "Krummes Elsass," has checked the Evangelical Lutheran Church records for Vinstingen (1603 and forward). He found that no "LEONHARDs," or similar names appear there. Interestingly, there is a remote area near Fénétrange called Saint Leonhard (source: Family Album of Otto Lenhard). At the baptism of George Jacob LENHARD (January 1, 1765) in Hoeheinoed, a Wilhelm LEONHART, "Rector" from the Wolfskirchen Parish, near Bockenheim, was named as a godfather. Wolfskirchen and Bockenheim are within a few kilometers of Fénétrange! This was a lucky find. There has been no link found between our family and that of the Hoeheinoedian LENHARD, and it doesnt appear that there is one. The documents of the "Krummes Elsass," which Dr. Hein examined, show a Wilhelm LEONHART in Wolfskirchen, and the title "Rector" was a surprise to Dr. Hein. However, the Catholic Church records of Eschweiler (a few kilometers from Wolfskirchen) contain a Wilhelm Peter LEONHARD, Catholic Priest, Eschweiler, July 26, 1782, (source: CDs with family registers collected by Dr. Hein). These items were the result of a sweeping search for LENHARD relatives in the "Krummes Elsass" and adjacent Lothringian areas.
- In "Krummes Elsass," and in close proximity to Finstingen, there are several LENHARD families documented living between the years 1600 and 1720. LENHARDs lived in the following places (names and dates found in Dr. Heins CDs and in family albums):
Baerendorf (starting from 1703); Bockenheim (1682 and 1686); Buessert (1633); Diedendorf (1702-1708); Durstel (1713); Hangweiler (1703); Harskirchen (1630); Ingweiler (1615-1636); Keskastel (from 1700); Lixheim (1672); Lorentzen (1707); Pisdorf (1633); Postorf (1644), Weyer (1666); and Wolfskirchen (1631). It can be seen that in 1670/80 there were apparently no local residents named LENHARD.
New LENHARD families arrived in the area from Switzerland and Austria and most likely, moved away again. In 1742, there was only one LENHARD family to be found in the area. In "Krummes Elsass," during the period between 1648 and 1700, there were numerous changes to the list of citizens and their religions. The turn over in the population was due to constant wars.
The following mentions speak to the origins of the LENHARDs from "Krummes Elsass," and nearby Lorraine areas:
A) 1689, Friedrich LEONARD, was a witness in Homburg to the marriage of Laurent (Lorenz) PASQUET (widower of Agnes GIRARDIN from Erbach) and Catharine DUFORT (widow of Anton DUGARD from Hasberg). Another witness was Jean de Lorraine. Are these all Lothringian immigrants? Dr. Heins efforts help us with this:
"The name DUFORT is verifiably in the Krummes Elsass, County of Saarwerden, starting 1648. The name GIRARDIN/GERARDIN appears in Lixheim and Bockenheim before 1620 and again after the 30 Years War; the name PASQUIN (not PASQUET) occurs in Bockenheim as early as 1630. Note, in addition, that the County Saarwerden was very sparsely settled in 1677 Bockenheim had four times the subjects (60) than the next larger locale. From these numbers, it can be assumed that the families interrelated and had good knowledge of each other.
Working thesis 5:
Friedrich LEONHARD had close relatives in the area of "Krummes Elsass".
B) In Homburg, circa 1680/90, the names of several inhabitants in the Fénétrange area were the same as those in the "Krummes Elsass" area.
C) Due to occupation by Lotharingian forces (1641-1669) and French occupation (1673-1697), Homburg and Landstuhl have a closely connected history and have many immigrants from "Krummes Elsass."
D) There are two LENHARD entries found in the Catholic Church records of Bockenheim:
1. Daniel LENHART, of Austria Terra, Trez dicta, S. V. Balthasar LENHARDT and Sabina married, January 8, 1682,
in Huetta, Catharina KILIAN.
2. Leonhard LINARD and Maria gave birth to Johann, who was baptized November 9, 1686, in Huetta.
Working thesis 6:
There is a connection between the LENHARDs from the area "Krummes Elsass" and Austria.
E) There is a possible connection however much later between the Homburg LENHARDs and those in "Krummes Elsass:"
Johann Peter LIENHART, from Struth, son of Anton LIENHART, and prior to 1754 in Oberbetschbach (or Oberbetschdorf, since both spellings are given in the documents from Dr. Hein). The original documents need to be studied further. He married Catharina BECKERICH before 1741, and was mentioned again August 14, 1746. He married a second time April 11, 1747, to Maria Magdalena SCHOSS from Ingweiler.
Work thesis 7:
There could be a connection of the Homburgian LENHARDs to those of the area "Krummes Elsass".
The question, then, becomes whether ancestors of "our" LENHARDs lived in the area of "Krummes Elsass" before 1680. Secondly, whether they went from Tyrol to "Krummes Elsass" and moved from there to the Sickinger Hoehe.
The region around Bockenheim (today Saarunion), in the area of "Krummes Elsass," could have played a significant role in the history of "our" LENHARDs. Further research is necessary; but these sources may provide help:
1. The bibliography and sources for the area of "Krummes Elsass," as found in "Saarlaendische Familienkunde," Jahrg. VII, 1974, number 26, pgs. 271 274.
2. The two CDs that accompany the book series of "Family Albums for the area of "Krummes Elsass," by Dr. Gerhard Hein, published in September, 2000.
4.4 Perhaps the Origin is somewhere else?
His brother Claus LEONARD (born ca 1647) probably lived in Kollweiler in 1670. Claus married around 1670 at the Gosenberger Hof. On November 1, 1682, the lord named his vassal Claus to receive Gosenberger Hof.
There could be a family connection between the LENHARDs in Kollweiler and those in Schauerberg, but concrete proof of this is missing, so far. If it is found that Friedrich LENHARD was related to the LENHARDs in Kollweiler, the next question is, "who is the ancestor they had in common?" If Friedrich LENHARD lived in Kollweiler in 1655, it would be an argument opposing the thesis that his origins were in Tyrol, since there is little chance of immigration from Tyrol at that time.
There is also a branch of LENHARDs in "Haschbach am Remigiusberg" (village of Haschbach at the mountain Remigiusberg). Johann Georg LENHART, son of the Johann Peter LEONHARD from Tannheim/Tyrol, married Maria Katharina Drexeler on February, 1737, in Theisbergstegen. The couple lived in Haschbach. The father, Johann Peter LEONHARD, died March 26, 1764, in Haschbach at the age of 66. Was he born in Tannheim? The Haschbachian LENHARD should also be related to the Kollweilerian LENHARD.
Questions beget questions, assumptions based on documents remain without proof. If, in the light of new information, the assumptions can be refined or replaced, then the working theses would be refined.
The name LENHARD is found before 1700, for example, in the Vorderpfalz (Eastern part of Palatinate, near the Rhine River) and in Rheinhessen (Rhinehessia). And, we should not exclude the possibility of the origin being from other German regions of the Pfalz.
Working thesis 8:
The origin of our LENHARD is most probably Austria, or from the area "Krummes Elsass" in Lorraine/France
- Question 1: Can we prove a family relationship between "our" LENHARD and the LENHARD found in Haschbach at Remigiusberg?
- Question 2: Can we prove a family relationship between "our" LENHARD and the LENHARD in Kollweiler and the Gosenberger Hof?
In the absence of more substantial source documents, clarification and answers to these questions is, so far, not possible. Proving which working theory is correct, is dependent on finding new documents. Surely, there will be found some clues to the relationships between the LENHARD in Harsberg, in Homburg, in the area of "Krummes Elsass," and in the Tannheimian Valley in Tyrol..
On the basis of considering all the working theses, the following premise is made:
Our LENHARD originally came
from the Tannheimian valley in Tyrol/Austria and moved,
during the Lothringian government, to the area of
"Krummes Elsass," where branches of the family
became temporary residents.
Finally, they moved to Homburg and to Harsberg.
The "Enumeration for the
region of Landstuhl" for 1681, at least proves
LENHARDs were in Harsberg starting in 1678.
5. Characteristics of "our" LENHARD Clan
The LENHARD clan practices Roman Catholicism throughout. In the 18th Century, they were predominantly farmers and were very provincial. The records showing marriages in the LENHARD, as well as the BOLD, KESSLER, and BUCHHEIT families, can be used to argue that there were attempts to keep the landed property in the family.
Among them, only a few (10 - 15) emigrated, and most of those went to America. Considering the strong emigration patterns of other families, this is quite remarkable. However, between 1764 and 1770, a considerable number emigrated, particularly from the Harsberg area to Hungary. Only two LENHARDS (without known descendants) are found in the Family Book of Jahrmarkt in the Banat. Families associated with the LENHARDS, such as BOLD, GLAS, JUNG, SEHY, WAGNER, and WILHELM are also found in Jahrmarkt.
6. Prominent Members of the LENHARD Kinship
Some family members are particularly worth mentioning, since they achieved a degree of celebrity. This list does not attempt to rate or rank the individuals mentioned, and cannot be considered complete.
7. Lineage of our LENHARD Clan
In the following chapter, the LENHARD ancestors
(the main line) are listed starting with Ella LENHARD, the
mother of the author:
I. Ella Josefine LENHARD, born 1923 in Pirmasens, married 1947 in Zweibruecken, in Pfalz (Palatinate) Karl Josef MUELLER
II. Hermann LENHARD, wine-merchant in Zweibruecken, born 1888 in Schauerberg, married 1919 in Pirmasens Josephine Berta
TIEFENTHALER from Pirmasens. The pair had 3 children and lived at first in Pirmasens but in Zweibruecken starting ca 1930.
Hermann is patriarch to the Zweibrueckian LENHARDs with descendants in Zweibruecken, Neustadt at the Weinstrasse
(German wine road), and Winnweiler.
III. Nikolaus LENHARD, a farmer in Schauerberg, starting from 1903 member of a committee in Pirmasens, born 1854 in Schauerberg,
married 1879 in Saalstadt (ecclesiastical marriage in Weselberg) Katharina BARDENS from the "Lichtenbrucher Hof" near
Kaiserslautern. The pair had 13 children and lived until 1903 in Schauerberg and then in Pirmasens. Nikolaus founded the
Pirmasensian main branch of LENHARDS. His sons moved to Germersheim, Niedersimten, Zweibruecken, Pforzheim, Schopp
The farm of descendants of the LENHARD family in Schauerberg about the year 1990
IV. Nicolaus LENHARD, a farmer and miller on the "Schwanenmuehle" (swan mill) near to Horbach, born 1829 in Schauerberg,
married 1851 in Saalstadt, Katharina WAGNER from Hermersberg. The pair had 12 children and lived on the Schwanenmuehle
near Horbach. After his death, the sons lived in Schauerberg and moved to Waldfischbach (Waldfischbachian branch),
Dahn (Dahnian branch), Berg (Bergian branch), Rodalben (Rodalbian branch) and Wuerzburg.
V. Georg Jacob LENHARD, Jr., farmer in Schauerberg, born 1801 in Harsberg, married 1827 in Schauerberg Anna Barbara SEHY from
Schauerberg. They parented 2 children and lived in Schauerberg.
VI. Georg Jacob LENHARD, Sr., farmer in Harsberg, born ca 1762 in Harsberg, married 1786 in Weselberg, Elisabetha STORCK from
Zeselberg. The pair had 7 children and lived in Harsberg. His son Johann Adam is the founder of the "younger Harsbergian
branch" with descendants in Harsberg, Zeselberg and Bildschacherhof. His son Peter is the founder of the "Schmitshausian
branch" with descendants in Schmitshausen, Reifenberg, Herschberg, Harsberg and Schifferstadt. Some members of this
branch emmigrated to Canada and descendants live today in USA (Detroit etc.) and Canada. His son Georg Jacob is
the founder of the "younger Schauerbergian branch" with descendants in Schauerberg, Pirmasens, Waldfischbach, Dahn, Berg,
Rodalben, Landau, Zweibruecken, Ixheim, Leonberg, Waghaeusel, Dorn-Duerkheim.
VII. Johann Georg LENHARD, a farmer in Harsberg, born 1728 on the Neumuehle (new mill) close to Kirchenarnbach, married 1750 in
Kirchenarnbach to Maria Barbara MAYER from Harsberg. They had 8 children and lived in Harsberg. Only descendants of his
son George Jakob LENHARD are well known.
VIII. Johann LENHARD, a farmer in Harsberg, born around 1704 in Harsberg, married 1727 in Kirchenarnbach Anna Catharina JUNG from
Kirchenarnbach. The pair had 6 children and ca 1730 lived on the Neumuehle near Kirchenarnbach and later in Harsberg. Only
descendants of his son Johann George LENHARD are well known.
IX. Johann LENHARD (LIONHARD), a farmer in Harsberg, born at about 1680 probably in Harsberg, married around 1705 Anna Dorothea NN.
The pair had 6 children and lived in Harsberg. Only descendants of the son Johann LENHARD are well known.
X. Friedrich LENHARD (LEONARDT), a farmer in Harsberg, born around 1643, married around 1675 Anna Elisabetha NN. They had about
9 children and lived in Harsberg. His son Johann is the patriarch of the "Harsbergian branch" with descendants in Harsberg,
Schauerberg and Schmitshausen. Johann Georg founded the "older Schauerbergian family branch" with descendants in
Schauerberg, Niedermohr and Sausenheim, Franz founded the "2. Harsbergian branch ", Jakob the "Bannian branch" with descendants
in Bann, Kindsbach and Landsweiler-Reden, Joseph the "Zeselbergian branch", Johann Adam the "second older Schauerbergian branch"
and Peter the "Harsbergian branch".
Coat of Arms from LENHARD/LEONHARD Clans
So far, there has been no officially registered Coat of Arms found for the LENHARD family based on Friedrich Leonhardt. We have to assume, that our LENHARD clan had no coat of arms. But there are coat of arms from other LENHARD clans.
Following coat of arms is from Scotland but it presents very good the key symbols of our own LENHARD clan: the lion as part of the family name and the red eagle as sign of Tyrol, where probably is the origin homeland of our LENHARD clan.
Some more examples of German LENHARD/LEONHARD arms:
9. Use of the Master Sequence
This lineage list is just the first step and requires much more research and time before completion. The author asks all family members and interested readers for support by reporting additions, corrections and improvement suggestions. All newspaper clippings (e.g. birth, marriage, and obituaries), pictures, copies of old documents, etc., are useful in this regard. Please give me your help. Since the author lives outside of the Pfalz (Palatinate), he does not have privy to the local information there, so please assume the information will be relevant news.
The family tree is compiled as a collection of individual sheets, which can be easily updated and exchanged.
As for the spelling of family names, it is preferable to send and record them as found in documents, which ideally should always be referenced by publication, date, and source. Concerning marriage dates, information about the civil marriage ceremony is given priority, starting in 1798 (the date of the introduction of the registry offices in the Pfalz). With the data beginning in the 18th century are indicated supplementing to godfathers and marriage witnesses. "Our" LENHARDs are predominantly Roman Catholic. Therefore the religion should be indicated only if a person is not Catholic.
The author wishes to acknowledge, and thank,
the late Mr. Felix LENHARD from Pforzheim. His great interest and
his support encouraged the author to undertake this work. In
addition Mr. Michael LENHARD in Schifferstadt rendered
substantial help with his support while sorting through and
evaluating the documents of his grandfather, Otto LENHARD. As
mentioned, the research efforts of Otto LENHARD, resulting in his
1936, "Family History," formed the basis for this work.
10. Information Exchange
The author has done this family research as a hobby, not for any material interests. The complete family tree is unpublished [but is available in Kaiserslautern in the "Institut für Pfaelzische Geschichte und Volkskunde"] and must be subject to revision. Information from the manuscript will be given to family members free of charge. As with other genealogical researchers, an information exchange is desirable. Information will be provided in the spirit of mutual assistance.
Please send additions, corrections, and comments to the following address:
The original paper has been written in German and is the master for this document. I am not so familiar with the English language. So the translation can not be optimal. If you see errors or you can give me better wording, please let me know and help to reach an improved version.
More information concerning my genealogical and family research and an impressum you will find on my main homepage:
First German Version, June 1985, First English Version, April 9th, 2003 Second English Version, April 20th, 2003 with pictures and formal adjustments Third English Version, April 23rd, 2003 with an historical map of the territories 1789 Fourth English Version, January 6th, 2006 with updates according to the German version Fifth English Version, May 25th, 2006 with some corrections. Sixth English Version, December 2008, with some extensions. Seventh English Version, January 2010, with examples of coat of arms.
Glossary of Terms for Genealogical Research in Germany
Term English translation Explanation Amtsgerichtsbuch records of all legal decisions of a court Amtsrelationsbuch records of all legal decisions of a court; a book from the local government (court) documenting juristic and legal events Ast branch used in family tree for a bigger branch Brockhaus German Encyclopedia Denombrement list, description of a country list of heads of households, for tax purposes, etc. Freiherren barons aristocratic title Großgericht Large Court area Area of sovereign authority named "Large Court;" here a specialty because the common dominion of the "Sickinger" was divided in two court areas governed by two barons. heim home Used in village or town names, e.g., Mannheim and Heppenheim. Most of these villages are very old and were founded in the 5th and 6th centuries. Herren von lord of aristocratic title Herrschaft sovereign authority, government, mastery, used for sovereignty Hoehe high ground Used for an area which is higher than the surrounding region, e.g. the Sickinger Hoehe is an area South of Landstuhl, owned by the Barons of Sickingen, an area with mountains and an elevation of about 400 m. Hof farm, estate Kleingericht Small Court area see "Großgericht" above Los lot, as in "lot farmer" Used for a share, or portion, of ground given to new farmers which came in the village; a method of distributing ownerless ground. NN not named used when the family name of a person is unknown S. v. son of Sippe kinship, tribe Clan or family group stadt town extension of a name to indicate "town." Used in names of both village and town names. Stamm family, clan used in family tree for the trunk, tribe Stammbaum family tree, pedigree Stammfolge line of descent literal translation is "Master Sequence" Stammvater patriarch or ancestor eldest known ancestor of a clan T. v. daughter of Urkunde document von of used in names, not only aristocratic names, for saying from which town, or area, a person came Weinstrasse Wine road In Germany we have the "Deutsche Weinstrasse" (= German wine road). Towns and villages along this road have the privilege to write behind their name "an der Weinstrasse". Zweig twig, small branch used in family tree for a smaller branch, offshoot from trunk
Name (entity) English Country Region
1650 & 1750
Aargau (region) Switzerland Aargau Bad Bergzabern (town) Germany Pfalz Zweibruecken near Bergzabern Baerendorf (village) France Lorraine Banat (region) Hungary Bann (village) Germany Pfalz Sickingen Benzweiler (village) Germany Rheinland-Pfalz Simmern btwn Simmern & Rheinboellen Berg (village) Germany Pfalz Kurpfalz near the Rhine River Bildschacherhof (farm) Germany Pfalz Bockenheim (village) France Lorraine Brechweiler (village) Germany Buessert (village) France Lorraine Busenberg (village) Germany Pfalz Duerckheim Chumbt (Klosterkumbd, village) Germany Rheinland-Pfalz Simmern btwn Simmern & Rheinboellen Hochstift Speyer
and Schenk von
Dahn (village) Germany Pfalz Waldenburg South of Palatinate Diedendorf (village) France Lorraine Dorn-Duerkheim (village) Germany Rheinland-Pfalz Kurpfalz near the River Rhine Durstel (village) France Lorraine Elsass (region) Alsace France Alsace Erbach (village) Germany Saarland Pfalz-Zweibruecken Today part of Homburg Finstingen (town) France Lorraine Frankweiler (village) Germany Pfalz Pfalz-Zweibruecken Gosenberger Hof (farm) Germany Pfalz Harsberg (village) Germany Pfalz Sickingen Harskirchen (village) France Lorraine Haschbach am Remigiusberg (vl) Germany Pfalz 1650 Pfalz-Veldenz village near to mountain Remigiusberg 1750 Kurpfalz Heppenheim (town) Germany Hessen Hermersberg (village) Germany Pfalz Sickingen Herschberg (village) Germany Pfalz Leiningen on the "Sickinger Hoehe" 1650 Hanau- Lichtenberg 1750 Hessen-Darmstadt Hoeheinoed (village) Germany Pfalz Horn (village) Germany Rheinland-Pfalz Simmern Nassau-Saarbruecken Homburg (town) Germany Saarland Horbach (village) Germany Hessen Sickingen Huetta (village) France Ingweiler (village) France Innsbruck (town) Austria Austria Capital of Tyrol Jahrmarkt (town) Germany Kaiserslautern (town) K-town Germany Pfalz Kurpfalz Keskastel (village) France Lorraine Kindsbach (village) Germany Pfalz Sickingen Kirchenarnbach (village) Germany Pfalz Sickingen Kollweiler (village) Germany Pfalz 1650 Pfalz-Veldenz 1750 Kurpfalz Krummes Elsass (region) France Lorraine Kuebelberg (village) Germany Pfalz Kurpfalz Labach (village) Germany Pfalz Sickingen Landstuhl (town) Germany Pfalz Sickingen Landsweiler-Reden (village) Germany Saarland Lichtenbrucher Hof (farm) Germany Pfalz Limoges (town) France Lixheim (village) France Lorentzen (village) France Lothringen (region) Lorraine France Mackweiler (village) France Mannheim (town) Germany Wuerttemberg Kurpfalz Massweiler (village) Germany Pfalz Hessen-Darmstadt Neumuehle (mill) Germany Pfalz Sickingen Niedermohr (village) Germany Kurpfalz Niederstaufenbach (village) Germany Pfalz Pfalz-Zweibruecken Nuenschweiler (village) Germany Pfalz Pfalz-Zweibruecken Oberamt Lautern (region) Germany Kurpfalz Odenwald (region) Germany Hessen Orleans (town) France Pensenweiler (Benzweiler, vl) Germany Rheinland-Pfalz Simmern btwn Simmern & Rheinboellen Pfalz (region) Palatinate Germany Rheinland-Pfalz Southern pt of Rhineland-Pfalz Pforzheim (town) Germany Wuerttemberg 1650 Hanau- Lichtenberg 1750 Hessen- Darmstadt Pirmasens (town) Germany Pfalz Pisdorf (village) France Lorraine Postorf (village) France Lorraine Ramstein (town) Germany Pfalz Kurpfalz Reifenberg (village) Germany Pfalz Pfalz-Zweibruecken Reutte (town) Austria Rhein (river) Rhine Germany Rheinhessen (region) Germany Rheinland-Pfalz near Mainz Rodalben (village) Germany Pfalz Baden-Baden Saalstadt (village) Germany Pfalz Leiningen Saar (river) Germany Saarland (region) Germany Saarland Sausenheim (village) Germany Pfalz Leiningen Schauerberg (village) Germany Pfalz Sickingen Schifferstadt (village) Germany Pfalz Hochstift Speyer Schmitshausen (village) Germany Pfalz Pfalz-Zweibruecken Schopp (village) Germany Pfalz Kurpfalz Schwanenmuehle (mill) Germany Pfalz Kurpfalz Speyer (town) Germany Pfalz Reichsstadt Stockbornerhof (farm) Germany Pfalz Pfalz-Zweibruecken Tannheim (village) Austria Tirol Tannheimer Tal (region) Austria Tirol Theisbergstegen (village) Germany Pfalz Tiefenbach France Tirol (region) Tyrol Austria Vorarlberg (region) Austria Vorderpfalz (region) Germany East Palatinate near Rhine Waldfischbach (village) Germany Pfalz Kurpfalz Weselberg (village) Germany Pfalz Sickingen Westpfalz (region) Germany Westrich (region) Germany Weyer (village) France Wilgartswiesen (village) Germany Pfalz Zweibruecken Winnweiler (village) Germany Pfalz 1650 Falkenstein 1750 Oesterreich Wolfskirchen (village) France Lorraine Zeselberg (village) Germany Pfalz Sickingen Zweibruecken (town) Germany Pfalz Pfalz-Zweibruecken